The Great Depression & The New Deal:



Picture Predictions:

  • Roaring Twenties - ( lion ) powerful / strong time period.
  • Baseball, Jazz music, Illegal activity had a fair amount of importance during this era.
  • Babe Ruth, Luis Armstrong, Al Capone are all well known people in the image.
  • October 29, 1929 - " Black Tuesday "
  • Stocks crashed which was a big deal and caused people to panic.
  • Italy's crowned prince is wanted dead, there was an attempt made.
  • Person reading the daily newspaper, gaining knowlege about whats going on in their enviroment and surroundings.
  • Hoover was president from the years 1930 - 1933. Roosevelt soon then took over from the years 1933 - 1939.
  • The rate on the graph is inconsistant between the twos presidents.
  • The government spent the least amount of money between the years 1925 - 1930.
  • The government spent the most amount of money between the years 1935 - 1940.
  • Run down town called Hooverville that was named after Hoover when he was president.
  • Houses were shacks with no streets, mainly all dirt roads.
  • FDR was trying to recover everything that needed to be fixed, attempted to make them stronger.

The 1920's was a decade of entertainment, new inventions, illegal activity and economic prosperity ( jobs, money, business growth ).
But in 1929 the stock market crashed and the economy crumbled.
The 1930's became a decade of the Great Depression, poverty, desperation, bankruptcy, homelessness, and unemployment. FDR became President and enacted the New Deal to try to fix the problems of the GD.

BOOM AND BUST CYCLES of the capitalist economies. 1920's BOOM - 1930's BUST.
Busts often occur due to overexpansion and overproduction - business make too many products that don't get sold and they have wasted their money. They wind up losing money and having to lay off workers. That is usually one part of bust cycles. Another part of bust cycles is bad banking practices.



Picture & Analysis:


external image J9-1.jpg

This image represents what life was like in the 1930's, the decade of the Great Depression. Many people went through desperation due to bankruptcy and unemployment. It go so bad to the point where children had to go striking for their parents to be able to get jobs so they were able to afford the food on their table and the clothes on their backs.

external image dj2930.gif
This image repersents the stock market crash in the year 1929 that was considered to be " Black Tuesday ". The graph in the image shows how the economy crumbled due to the crashing of the stock market.


2 Column Notes:





Top 5 Causes of the Great Depression:

  1. Stock Market Crash of 1929 - the economy crumbled. Many people went through desperation due to bankruptcy and unemployment.
  2. Bank Failures - People were losing money at a time when they needed it the most.
  3. Reduction in Purchasing Across the Board - The amount of items that people were allowed to purchase were being reduced, money wasn't being spent.
  4. American Economic Policy with Europen - The government created the Smoot - Hawley Tarif which was a law that alllowed / helped people keep their jobs.
  5. Drought Conditions - Occured in the Mississippi Valley in the 1930's. Bad for farmers because they need water to grow their crops / sell their products. DUST BOWL.

Youtube Video:

  • By the year 1923, there wasn't a single bank open or availiable in 28 states.
  • Unemployment went from 4 million in the year 1930 to 12 million in the year 1932.
  • Building projects were publicly funded ( government money ) and privatly built ( private businesses ).
  • Hoover Dam began being built in the year 1931 and was finished in the year 1935 which helped provide electricity in all surrounding cities.
  • Hoover Dam also led to the development of Las Vegas.

Great Depression Document:


Mark Up reading of the Great Depression

Key Concepts so far ( before the New Deal ):


  1. What were the 1920s like?
  • The Roaring 20's
  • Fun, music, dancing
  • Women - more partying, short hair, shorter dresses
  • The Red Book magazine - " the Girls' Rebellion " that everyone should read
  • New roles for women, new opportunities - allowed to vote
  • As the population increased, cities did as well
  • Prohibition
  • The Great Migration, African American searching for better lives
  • Discrimination
  • A renaissance in Harlem - performing arts, fine arts, and literature. Reflected a strong and going sense of racial pride and confidence
  1. Why did the economy start to tank in the late '20s and get really bad in the early 30s (multiple reasons)?
  • Lots of buying on credit
  • Stock market crash
  • Bank failures
  • Drought conditions
  • Bad government policy
  • Over production by businesses
  1. What were the key characteristics of the Great Depression? (List the problems with descriptions and DATA)
  • Poverty / unemployment
  • Farm bankruptcies - Dust bowl
  • Ineffective government under President Hoover
  • Deflation - prices dropped and consumerism decreased
  • Emotional difficulties for Americans - people were miserable, guilty, angry, helpless, useless, etc.
  • Homelessness and hoboes
  • Unstable stock market
  • Unstable banking system
  • Business failures
  1. Who was president when the economy went bad and what did he try to do? (specific terms)
  • Herbert Hoover was president from 1929 - 1933. He became president in March, 1929 and the stock market crashed in October - 7 months later. Hoover did not cause the crash or the Depression, but he also didn't really help adress either.
  • Philosophy - set of ideas and beliefs.
  • Hoover was a republican, a conservative and he believed in laissez faire capitalism.
  • Believed in lower taxes, helping big businesses, and social darwinism.
  • Against a lot of change, liked to keep things traditional.
  • Laissez fair is french for " leave alone " or " let be " - as an economic philosophy it means for the government to let the economy function on its own - the government does not get very involved in the economy - not a lot of rules or regulations.

Hoover Video:

  • After graduating college, he built a new minning company which led to him being a millionare.
  • Often seen as a big business republican.
  • Relied on voluntarism during the Great Depression when the government needed to do more.
  • " In Hoover we trusted. Now we're busted. "
  • WWI Veterans went on a bonus march / bonus army in the year 1931 when they were suppose to recieve their bonus in the year 1945.
  • FDR offered America a sense of HOPE while Hoover did not.

Hoovers attempts to aid America and the economy:

  • Smoot - Hawley Tariff: signed into law by the congress on June 17, 1930 that raised United States taxes on imports. Americans would buy American made goods. Because of this, other countries passed tariffs on American goods and global trade slowed way down.
  • RFC - Reconstruction Finance Coporation: government agency to give loans to struggling banks, businesses, railroad companies, etc.
  • Hoover Dam and other public works building projects:


5. A. The Presidential Election of 1932 - was Herbert Hoover ( R ) vs. Frankiln Detano Roosevelt ( D ).

FDR was a Democrat and a liberal. He is more willing too except change and implement government involvement in the economy.

FDR Youtube Video:

  • Had a disease named polio and wasn't able to stand, walk, etc. without someone else's assistance.
  • " We have nothing to fear but fear itself. "
  • Was president from the years 1933 - 1945 ( year he passed away )
  • Mainly used the radio to reach out to the people of the United States.

Part F:


Pastures of Plenty Words and Music by Woody Guthrie

It's a mighty hard row that my poor hands have hoed
My poor feet have traveled a hot dusty road
Out of your Dust Bowl and Westward we rolled
And your deserts were hot and your mountains were cold
I worked in your orchards of peaches and prunes
I slept on the ground in the light of the moon
On the edge of the city you'll see us and then
We come with the dust and we go with the wind
California, Arizona, I harvest your crops
Well its North up to Oregon to gather your hops
Dig the beets from your ground, cut the grapes from your vine
To set on your table your light sparkling wine
Green pastures of plenty from dry desert ground
From the Grand Coulee Dam where the waters run down
Every state in the Union us migrants have been
We'll work in this fight and we'll fight till we win
It's always we rambled, that river and I

All along your green valley, I will work till I die
My land I'll defend with my life if it be
Cause my pastures of plenty must always be free

Analysis of lyrics:

  • in search for a better life and land.
  • desperate to harvest crops.
  • people needed to survive.
  • John Steinbeck is the author of the novel Grapes of Wrath.

external image dor001.jpg
Dorothea Lange: famous dust bowl photograph
external image dor9.jpg


3 R's of the New Deal:

  • Relief - temporary aid - short term
- temporary jobs.
- ex. CCC, civilian conservation crops
  • Reform - permanent aid - long term
- change.
- ex. SEC, secrurities and exchange commission
  • Recovery - different ways of doing things to avoid problems
- programs to get the economy back on track.
- ex. NIRA, national industrial recovery act

Evaluating the New Deal

1. Employment Status of the Civilian Labor Force

1929–1948


YEAR

PERCENT UNEMPLOYED

ANALYSIS

1929
3.2
  • economy is good
  • stock market crashed - October 29
1930
8.7
  • things start to unravel
1931
15.9
  • economy is getting worse and worse
1932
23.6
  • more and more business closing, etc.
  • FDR defeats Hoover and becomes president
1933
24.9
  • 25% unemployment is really high, worst of the GD
  • FDR takes office, begining of the new deal
  • banking adressed first, then unemployment.
  • SIDE NOTE - Hitler takes power in Germany
1934
21.7
  • more and more jobsprograms
  • progress starts to be made
1935
20.1
  • WPA, lots of jobs
  • social security, major changes
1936
16.9
  • unemployment #'s getting better and better
  • FDR got reelected as president
1937
14.3
  • best unemployment % during the New Deal.
  • government starts to pull back on the spending on jobs programs
1938
19.0
  • unemployment % jumps back up due to fewer government jobs programs
1939
17.2

1940
14.6

1941
9.9
  • Japan bombs pearl harbor
  • United States enters WWII
1942
4.7
  • Lots of jobs as soilders or in factories
1943
1.9

1944
1.2

1945
1.9

1946
3.9

1947
3.6

1948
3.4